In the PC security connection, a programmer is somebody who looks for and abuses shortcomings in a PC framework or PC system. Programmers may be propelled by a large number of reasons, for example, benefit, dissent, challenge. enjoyment or to assess those shortcomings to help with evacuating them. The subculture that has developed around programmers is regularly alluded to as the PC underground and is currently a known community.While different employments of the word programmer exist that are identified with PC security, for example, alluding to somebody with a propelled comprehension of PCs and PC networks,they are seldom utilized as a part of standard connection. They are liable to the longstanding programmer definition discussion about the term's actual importance. In this debate, the term programmer is recovered by PC software engineers who contend that somebody who breaks into PCs, whether PC criminal (dark caps) or PC security master (white hats),is all the more fittingly called a saltine instead.Some white cap programmers assert that they likewise merit the title programmer, and that just dark caps ought to be called "saltines".
Hacktivism can be divided into two main groups:
HOW HACKERS HAVE EVOVLED
Bruce Sterling follows a piece of the bases of the PC underground to the Yippies, a 1960s counterculture development that distributed the Technological Assistance Program (TAP) newsletter. TAP was a telephone phreaking bulletin that taught methods for unapproved investigation of the phone system. Numerous individuals from the phreaking group are additionally dynamic in the hacking group even today, and the other way around
A white cap programmer breaks security for non-malevolent reasons, maybe to test their own security framework or while working for a security organization which makes security programming. The expression "white cap" in Internet slang alludes to a moral programmer. This characterization likewise incorporates people who perform entrance tests and weakness evaluations inside of a contractual understanding. The EC-Council,also known as the International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants, is one of those associations that have created accreditations, courseware, classes, and internet preparing covering the assorted coliseum of moral hacking
A "dark cap" programmer is a programmer who "abuses PC security for little reason past vindictiveness or for individual addition" (Moore, 2005).Black cap programmers shape the cliché, unlawful hacking gatherings regularly depicted in mainstream culture, and are "the encapsulation of all that people in general reasons for alarm in a PC criminal".Black cap programmers break into secure systems to decimate, change, or take information; or to make the system unusable for the individuals why should approved utilize the system. Dark cap programmers are additionally alluded to as the "wafers" inside of the security business and by present day software engineers. Craclers keep the attention to the vulnerabilities to themselves and don't advise the overall population or the maker for patches to be connected. Singular flexibility and availability is advanced over protection and security. When they have picked up control more than a framework, they may apply fixes or fixes to the framework just to keep their authoritative control. Richard Stallman imagined the definition to express the noxiousness of a criminal programmer versus a white cap programmer who performs hacking obligations to distinguish spots to repair.
A grey hat hacker lies between a black hat and a white hat hacker. A grey hat hacker may surf the Internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has a security defect, for example. They may then offer to correct the defect for a fee. Grey hat hackers sometimes find the defect of a system and publish the facts to the world instead of a group of people. Even though grey hat hackers may not necessarily perform hacking for their personal gain, unauthorized access to a system can be considered illegal and unethical.
A social status among hackers, elite is used to describe the most skilled. Newly discovered exploits circulate among these hackers. Elite groups such as Masters of Deception conferred a kind of credibility on their members
A script kiddie (also known as a skid or skiddie) is an unskilled hacker who breaks into computer systems by using automated tools written by others (usually by other black hat hackers), hence the term script (i.e. a prearranged plan or set of activities) kiddie (i.e. kid, child—an individual lacking knowledge and experience, immature),usually with little understanding of the underlying concept.
A neophyte ("newbie", or "noob") is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology and hacking.
A blue hat hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who is used to bug-test a system prior to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed. Microsoft also uses the term BlueHat to represent a series of security briefing events.
HACKTIVISTA hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to publicize a social, ideological, religious or political message.
Hacktivism can be divided into two main groups:
- Cyberterrorism — Activities involving website defacement or denial-of-service attacks; and,
- Freedom of information — Making information that is not public, or is public in non-machine-readable formats, accessible to the public.